Chapter 2 Introduction Chapter 3
Pre-Revolutionary Ropemaking in the American Colonies

Short Bibliography of Twist

Just a few sources illustrating the ambiguity in descriptions of rope twist direction.

Sketch showing 'Z' and 'S' twists.
Twist Directions.

 

Ambiguities of Twist

Twines and Terminologies
"... the terms used to describe twist in twine or cordage (clockwise and counterclockwise, etc.) were misleading. They might refer to either the angle of twist or the motor action of making it."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1525/aa.1954.56.6.02a00140


Technical Terms in Fishing Gear Materials and Gear Fabrication
"A twine has 'Z' (Right) twist when the strands are twisted from right to left about its axis.
Note:-In some countries 'Z' twist is called left twist and 'S' twist is called right twist."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
http://aquaticcommons.org/16151/1/FT1.1_005.pdf

 

 

Z equals Right Twist

OSBI Trace Laboratory Training Manual
"... fibers having a right-hand twist (e.g. hemp, jute and sisal) are referred to as having a “Z-twist”.
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://osbi.ok.gov/sites/g/files/gmc476/f/Trace_LabTraining_Manual_Rev05_07-01-19.pdf


Wikidata
"Z-twist: regular twist, right twist, warp twist, right-hand twist..."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://m.wikidata.org/wiki/Q55296380


Dongguan Yufon Textile Materials Co
"Twist direction – Direction of twist is identified as ‘S’ for left twist and ‘Z’ for right twist."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
http://www.functionyarn.com/products/Yarn/Core_pun_yarn/20.html


Encyclopaedia Britannica
"When the rope twist is seen to spiral in direction upward to the right as the rope is held vertically, it is designated as right-laid or Z-twist; if upward to the left, as left-laid (S-twist). "
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://www.britannica.com/technology/rope


National Technical Reports Library
"... right hand warp twill (also called 'Z' twill) ..."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://ntrl.ntis.gov/NTRL/dashboard/searchResults/titleDetail/PB81214470.xhtml


Abaca - A Cordage Fiber USDA
"The twists as viewed in vertical position are designated by the letter "Z" for a right twist ...."
Accessed 04 February 2021 from
https://archive.org/stream/abacacordagefibe21robi/abacacordagefibe21robi_djvu.txt


RAVENOX Rope
"Left-laid rope: a rope that is twisted clockwise. Also referred to as S-lay."
Accessed 05 February 2021 from
https://www.ravenox.com/blogs/news/rope-terms

 

Z equals Left Twist

Service Thread
"... threads with a left twist, or Z-twist ..."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://www.servicethread.com/blog/left-twist-vs.-right-twist-industrial-sewing-thread-differences-and-applications


Trivantage
"Left twist: A 'Z' twist or twist in a clockwise direction."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://www.trivantage.com/thread-guide


INTERNET FRANCE (THAILAND)
Purveyor of Fishing Nets
"Z TWIST (Left Twist)"
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
http://www.ift-group.biz/netspec.htm


Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 6 2
"The thread to be used on an oscillating type sewing machine is LEFT TWIST (also known as Z twist)."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED101081.pdf


Airfrarne & Powerplant MECHANICS
"Machine, machine twist, left twist, or Z-twist indicates a left-twist thread; "
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://www.faa.gov/documentlibrary/media/advisory_circular/ac_65-15a.pdf


Coats Thread
"... and “Z” twist is sometimes referred to as left twist."
Accessed 04 February 2021 from
https://coats.com/en/Information-Hub/Thread-Production

 

Z equals Clockwise

Bella Online
"... we must spin our singles clockwise (Z twist) ..."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art51455.asp


Textile Study Center
"When a yarn is twisted in a clockwise direction, the fibers from a helical angle at the yarn surface. This angle conforms to the middle part of the letter 'Z'"
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://textilestudycenter.com/study-of-twist/


National Park Seervice
"... the two directions to twist fiber are clockwise (denoted in text with a 'Z') ..."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://www.nps.gov/nabr/learn/historyculture/upload/NABRSandal-Report.pdf

 

Z equals Anticlockwise

Department of Homeland Security
"A yarn can be twisted to form either a Z-twist (twisted in the counterclockwise direction) ..."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://www.cbp.gov/sites/default/files/documents/icp005r2_3.pdf


Textile Adviser
"The anticlockwise twist of yarn is called z-twist."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://www.textileadvisor.com/2019/05/yarn-twist-degree-of-twist-s-twist-z.html


National Library of Medicine
"... the strands were twined counterclockwise (Z-twist) to form a cord."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145842/


University of Nebraska - Lincoln
"... or in an anti-clockwise, Z-twist direction."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.google.com/&httpsredir=1&article=1146&context=tsaconf


University of California - Berkeley
"... counterclockwise (left, or "Z") twist ..."
Accessed 03 February 2021 from
https://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/anthpubs/ucb/proof/pdfs/ucas015-003.pdf


RAVENOX Rope
"Left-laid rope: a rope that is twisted clockwise. Also referred to as S-lay."
Accessed 05 February 2021 from
https://www.ravenox.com/blogs/news/rope-terms

 

Chapter 2 Introduction Chapter 3
Colophon Contacts